The Detection of Chloronium, H2Cl+, in the Interstellar Medium

Chloronium has been detected in absorption with the Herschel satellite toward the star-forming regions NGC 6334I and Sagittarius B2(S):
D. C. Lis, J. C. Pearson, D. A. Neufeld, et al.
Herschel/HIFI Discovery of Interstellar Chloronium (H2Cl+)
Astron. Astrophys. 521, (2010) Art. No. L9.
Three transitions have been detected toward NGC 6334I which show broadening by Cl hyperfine splitting and no recognizable absorption caused by spiral arm clouds. The 212 –101 transition of ortho-H2Cl+ has been observed near 781.6 and 780.05 GHz for the 35Cl and 37Cl isotopologs, respectively. The 111 –000 transition of para-H235Cl+ was observed near 485.4 GHz.
The absorption features near 485.4 and 780.05 GHz were both affected by emission features from dimethyl ether. A preliminary model for this molecule permitted accounting for these emmsion features in the analyses. This is a clear example that features by so-called "weed" species can affect "flowers" even in the case of Herschel observations. The recent report on the rotational spectroscopy of dimethyl ether by C. P. Endres et al., Astron. Astrophys. 504, (2009) 635, were instrumental.
The 111 –000 transition of para-H235Cl+, observed toward Sgr B2(S), displays absorption features of spiral arm clouds.

More recently, H2Cl+ has turned out to be rather widespread. The 111 –000 transition of the para species was observed with the Herschel satellite for both 35Cl and 37Cl isotopologs in absorption toward the strong contiunuum sources W31C and Sgr A (+50 km/s cloud). The transition was seen in emission in Orion S and in the photon-dominated region Orion Bar by:
D. A. Neufeld, E. Roueff, R. L. Snell, et al.
Herschel Observations of Interstellar Chloronium
Astrophys. J. 748, (2012) Art. No. 37.

Contributor(s): H. S. P. Müller; 10, 2010; 3, 2012