Vinyl cyanide, C2H3CN, aka acrylonitrile
or propenenitrile, has been detected first toward Sgr B2:
F. F. Gardner and G. Winnewisser,
The Detection of Interstellar Vinyl Cyanide (Acrylonitrile),
Astrophys. J. 195, L127L130 (1975).
The molecule was also detected in the dark cloud TMC-1:
H.E. Matthews and T.J. Sears,
The Detection of Vinyl Cyanide in TMC-1,
Astrophys. J. 272, 149153 (1983).
It was seen also in one of three translucent clouds (CB 17):
B. E. Turner, R. Terzieva, and E. Herbst,
The Physics and Chemistry of Small Translucent Molecular Clouds. XII. More Complex Species Explainable by Gas-Phase Processes
Astrophys. J. 518, 699732 (1999).
Quite recently, C2H3CN was among several molecules
detected with the IRAM 30 m telecope in the circumstellar envelope of
the carbon-rich AGB star CW Leo, aka IRC +10216:
M. Agúndez, J. P. Fonfría Expósito, J. Cernicharo, J. R. Pardo and M. Guélin,
Detection of Circumstellar CH2CHCN, CH2CN, CH3CCH, and H2CS
Astron. Astrophys. 479, 493501 (2008).
Vinyl cyanide in its two lowest vibrational states
v11 = 1
(in plane CCN bend; 239 cm1) and
v15 = 1
(out of plane CCN bend; 340 cm1)
has been detected toward Sgr B2(N):
A. Nummelin, P. Bergman,
Vibrationally Excited Vinyl Cyanide in Sgr B2(N)
Astron. Astrophys. 341, L59L62 (1999).
Previously, three and two lines, respectively, detected in an Orion KL survey have been assigned to vinyl cyanide in its v11 = 1 and v15 = 1 states:
P. Schilke, T. D. Groesbeck, G. A. Blake, and T. G. Phillips,
A Line Survey of Orion KL from 325 to 360 GHz,
Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 108, 301337 (1997).
Observations of 13C singly substituted species in
Sgr B2(N) have been reported:
H. S. P. Müller, A. Belloche, K. M. Menten, C. Comito, and P. Schilke,
Rotational Spectroscopy of Isotopic Vinyl Cyanide, H2C=CHC≡N, in the Laboratory and in Space,
J. Mol. Spectrosc. 250, 319325 (2008).
The astronomical observations are based on a molecular line survey carried out with the IRAM 30 m telescope at 3 mm with additional measurements at 2 and 1.3 mm.
The molecular line survey, mentioned in the previous paragraph, was described
in detail by
A. Belloche, H. S. P. Müller, K. M. Menten, P. Schilke, and C. Comito:
Complex Organic Molecules in the Interstellar Medium: IRAM 30 m Line Survey of Sagittarius B2(N) and (M)
Astron. Astrophys. 559, Art. No. A47 (2013).
A total of six excited vibrational states of vinyl cyanide were observed in this work. They are v11 = 1, v15 = 1, which both were seen before, plus newly v11 = 2, v11 = v15 = 1, v11 = 3, and v11 = 3. The latter state has a vibrational energy of about 688 cm1 or about 990 K.
A. López, B. Tercero, Z. Kisiel, A. M. Daly, C. Bermúdez, H. Calcutt,
N. Marcelino, S. Viti, B.J. Drouin, I. R. Medvedev, C. F. Neese,
L. Pszczólkowski, J. L. Alonso, and J. Cernicharo
Laboratory Characterization and Astrophysical Detection of Vibrationally Excited States of Vinyl Cyanide in Orion-KL
Astron. Astrophys., (2014), accepted.
The authors detect two further states newly, v10 = 1, which interacts strongly with v11 = v15 = 1, and v11 = 4. The latter is the highest state detected in space thus far.